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There are also other mechanisms involved in sexual conflict such as traumatic insemination, forced copulation, penis fencing, love darts and others.
Female resistance traditionally includes reducing negative effects to mechanisms implemented by males, but outside the norm may include sexual cannibalism, increased fitness in females on offspring and increased aggression to males.
Only the relative positions of the optimal trait values are important as the comparative positions of the male and female provide information regarding their sexual conflict.
The trait value bar at the bottom of this figure indicates the relative intensity of each trait.
The perpetual cycle begins with the traits that favor male reproductive competition, which eventually manifests into male persistence.
It is important to note that females also benefit from high fecundity, and thus this trait is probably more affected by classical natural selection.Following this event, females may develop a counter-adaptation, that is, a favorable trait that reduces the direct costs implemented by males. After this event, females' fitness depression decreases, and the cycle starts again.Interlocus sexual conflict reflects interactions among mates to achieve their optimal fitness strategies and can be explained through evolutionary concepts.Sex biased genes could either be male or female biased and sequence analysis of these protein coding genes have revealed their faster rate of evolution which has been attributed to their positive selection vs. Apart from sex specific natural selection and sexual selection that includes both intersexual and intrasexual selection, a third phenomenon also explains the differences in gene expressions between two sexes – sexual antagonism.Sexual antagonism represents an evolutionary conflict at a single or multiple locus that contribute differentially to the male and female fitness.